U.S. Food & Drug Administration

In recent years, FDA has extensively studied the safety and consumption of energy drinks. This includes commissioning a consumption study of caffeinated beverages and authorizing the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a two-day public workshop on caffeine in food and dietary supplements. This study confirmed that overall caffeine intake has not increased since energy drinks entered the U.S. market, and that energy drinks contribute only a small portion of American consumers’ daily caffeine intake, even for children and adolescents. 

European Food Safety Authority

In Europe, EFSA has extensively studied energy drinks for more than 15 years and has repeatedly confirmed the safety of energy drink ingredients. In 2015, EFSA released its Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine, concluding:

  • There is no generally accepted scientific and fact-based evidence that taurine and glucoronolactone (two ingredients commonly used in energy drinks) interact adversely with, or enhance the effects of, caffeine with respect to its effects on the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, or hydration status in the body at the levels typically included in energy drinks.
  • For healthy adults, a single dose of up to 200 mg caffeine from any dietary source is not associated with adverse health effects. Daily caffeine intake of up to 400 mg from any dietary source is also not associated with adverse health effects for this population.
  • For children (3-10 years) and adolescents (10-18 years), a single dose of up to 3 mg caffeine (from any dietary source) per kg of body weight is not associated with adverse health effects. This is also EFSA’s daily caffeine recommendation for this population.  

Health Canada

Health Canada’s energy drink assessment, published in June 2013, concluded:

  • For healthy adults, daily caffeine intake from any source of up to 400 mg is not associated with adverse health effects. 
  • For teens 13-18 years of age, Health Canada has suggested a daily caffeine intake limit of 2.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight.