The following are materials that support our positions on the science and safety of energy drinks and their ingredients, and also counter some of the common myths.
Turnbull, D., J.V. Rodricks and G.F. Mariano. 2016. Neurobehavioral Hazard Identification and Characterization for Caffeine. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 74: 81-92; doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.12.002 *
Turnbull, D., J.V. Rodricks, G.F. Mariano and F. Chowdhury. 2017. Caffeine and Cardiovascular Health. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 89: 165-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.07.025 *
White, J.R. Jr., J.M. Padowski, Y. Zhong, G. Chen, S. Luo, P. Lazarus, M.E. Layton, S. McPherson. 2016. Pharmacokinetic Analysis and Comparison of Caffeine Administered Rapidly or Slowly in Coffee Chilled or Hot vs. Chilled Energy Drink in Healthy Young Adults. Clinical Toxicology. 54:4, 308-312, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2016.1146740 *
Tran, N.L., L.M. Barraj, X. Bi and Jack, M.M. Trends and Patterns of Caffeine Consumption among US Teenagers and Young Adults, NHANES 2003 – 2012 Food and Chemical Toxicology. 94: 227-242; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.007 *
Wikoff, D., B.T. Welsh, R. Henderson, G.P. Brorby, J. Britt, E. Myers, J. Goldberger, H.R. Lieberman, C. O'Brien, J. Peck, M. Tenenbein, C. Weaver, S. Harvey, J. Urban, C. Doepker. 2017. A systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food and Chemical Toxicology. In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.04.002 *
Mitchell, D.C., C.A. Knight, C.A., J. Hockenberry, R. Teplansky and T.J. Hartman. 2013. Beverage caffeine intakes in the US. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 63:136-142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.042
Mitchell, D.C., J. Hockenberry, R. Teplansky and T.J. Hartman. 2015. Assessing dietary exposure to caffeine from beverages in the U.S. population using brand-specific versus category-specific caffeine values. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 80: 247–252.
Caffeine intake by the U.S. population. Prepared by Laszlo Somogyi 2010. FDA comments on Subcontract Number: 70000073494 – December 2012.
Nawrot, P., S. Jordan, J. Eastwood, J. Rotstein, A. Hugenholtz and M. Feeley. 2013. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam. 2003 Jan;20(1):1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0265203021000007840
Health Canada’s Proposed Approach to Managing Caffeinated Energy Drinks. 2011.
EFSA Scientific Opinion on The use of taurine and D-glucurono-gamma-lactone as constituents of the so-called “energy” drinks. The EFSA Journal (2009) 935, 1-31. DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2009.935
EFSA Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine. EFSA Journal (2015) 13(5):4102. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4102
Martyn, D., A. Lau, P. Richardson and A. Roberts. 2018. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 111: 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.10.059 *
Benson, S.M., K.M. Unice, M.E. Glynn. 2019. Hourly and Daily Intake Patterns among U.S. Caffeinated Beverage Consumers based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2016). Food and Chemical Toxicology 125: 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.12.053 *
Borron, S.W., P.L. Foster, S.H. Watts, J. Herrera, J. Larson, R.L. Kingston, M. Forrester. Energy drink exposures reported to Texas Poison Centers: Analysis of adverse incidents in relation to total sales, 2010-2014. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 97: 1-14. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230018301399 *
*Received research support from the American Beverage Association