• Letter sent by Dr. Richard Adamson - former Section Chief, Laboratory Chief and Director, Division of Cancer Etiology and Scientific Director, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health - on behalf of the American Beverage Association to U.S. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Margaret Hamburg, July 2013. This letter addresses misinformation included in the Arria et al letter sent to FDA earlier this year.
  • Independent analysis noting the limitations of the DAWN report on alleged energy drink-related emergency room visits.

There are many useful resources about safe caffeine consumption, including how much caffeine can be found in popular foods and beverages. A sampling of them are below.

  • Turnbull, D., J.V. Rodricks and G.F. Mariano. 2016. Neurobehavioral Hazard Identification and Characterization for Caffeine.  Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 74: 81-92; doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.12.002
  • White, J.R. Jr., J.M. Padowski, Y. Zhong, G. Chen, S. Luo, P. Lazarus, M.E. Layton, S. McPherson.  2016.  Pharmacokinetic Analysis and Comparison of Caffeine Administered Rapidly or Slowly in Coffee Chilled or Hot vs. Chilled Energy Drink in Healthy Young Adults.  Clinical Toxicology.  54:4, 308-312, DOI: 10.3109/15563650.2016.1146740 (http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2016.1146740)
  • Tran, N.L., L.M. Barraj, X. Bi and Jack, M.M. Trends and Patterns of Caffeine Consumption among US Teenagers and Young Adults, NHANES 2003 – 2012  Food and Chemical Toxicology. 94: 227-242 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.007
  • International Food Information Council Foundation Review, Caffeine & Health: Clarifying the Conversations, March 2008.
  • Food and Drug Administration, Caffeine Intake by the U.S. Population, August 2010.
  • Archives of Internal Medicine, Coffee, Caffeine, and Risk of Depression Among American Women, September 2011.
  • Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Food Sources and Intakes of Caffeine in the Diets of Persons in the United States, April 2008.
  • Mayo Clinic, Caffeine Content for Coffee, Tea, Soda and More.
  • To find out how much caffeine is in some of the foods that you may enjoy, visit USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.